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高考英语阅读理解主旨大意题解题技巧,送给备考的你

网络 2020-04-02

《普通高中英语课程标准(2017年版)》提出学生对语篇整体理解的要求。具体的语言技能内容要求为:从语篇中提取主要信息和观点,理解语篇要义。区分、分析和概括语篇中的主要观点和事实。

此项考查要求学生通过阅读文章,抓住文章的主旨大意所在,在理解文章内容的基础上,找到文章大意或段落大意,主要考查学生归纳概括信息的能力。

主旨大意题是高考阅读理解中常考的题型之一,主要考查考生把握全文主题和理解中心思想的能力。通常以选择文章最佳标题(title/topic),概括文章中心大意(main idea)、文章段落大意(topic)等形式出现。主旨大意题是阅读理解题中的高难度题型,属于能力型题目。

研究近几年课标地区的高考阅读理解题可以发现,主旨大意题几乎年年都有,而且在大部分地区的阅读理解题中会有1~3道此类题。其考查形式主要有以下几种:

1、标题概括类

做此类试题时,要注意标题的三个特性,即醒目性、概括性和针对性。解题时要抓住文章的首尾段和每一段的首尾句,要注意贯穿文章始终的词语。

常见设问形式有:

What is the best title for this passage?

Which of the following is the best title of the passage?

What can be a suitable title for the text?

What might be the best title for the passage?

The best title of the passage is ______.

The suitable headline of the passage may be ______.

2、文章大意类

每篇文章都有中心思想,可以通过找主题句来获取文章中心思想。主题句通常在首段或结尾段,但有时也会出现在文章的中间段落。因此,在阅读时要倍加关注文章的首段和结尾段及各个段落的主题句。

常见设问形式有:

What is the main idea of the passage?

Which of the following can best summarize the passage?

What is the message conveyed in the story?

What does the passage mainly present?

What is the main theme of the story?

What does the story mainly tell us?

What does the passage mainly talk about?

The passage is mainly about ______.

The main purpose of the passage is to ______.

The passage is mainly written to ______.

3、段落大意类

每个段落通常都有一个中心思想,通常会在本段首句体现出来,即常说的段落主题句。一般来说,采用归纳法的段落,细节表述在前,归纳概括在后。若主题句出现在段首,则文章多为说明文和议论文。主题句也可能出现在段落的中间。有时作者没有写出明显的主题句,考生要学会根据段落的内容概括出主题句。

常见设问形式有:

What is the main idea of paragraph 1/the last paragraph?

What does paragraph 2 mainly talk about?

What is the last paragraph chiefly concerned with?

What does the writer try to express in paragraph 3?

Which of the following can best summarize paragraph 1?

What is the main idea discussed in paragraph 2?

The main idea of the second paragraph is probably that ______.

应对策略

1、标题概括类

(1)快速浏览全文,了解文章梗概;

(2)找到文章主旨句或关键句,去掉修饰成分,保留中心词;

(3)结合选项与中心词,选出能够全面概括文章内容的标题。

解答此类题目时,注意所选文章题目必须能概括全文的中心内容,即标题涵盖性强,能覆盖全文;标题要体现主题,既不能“太大”,也不能过于片面,即标题所指的范围要恰当;标题表意准确,与文章的感情色彩相同。避免以下四种错误:以偏概全(多表现为部分代替整体);概括过度(多表现为扩大范围);以具体代抽象(多表现为以事实或细节代替抽象概念的大意);偷换概念(多表现为混淆事件的对象)。

Bacteria are an annoying problem for astronauts. The microorganisms(微生物)from our bodies grow uncontrollably on surfaces of the International Space Station, so astronauts spend hours cleaning them up each week. How is NASA overcoming this very tiny big problem? It’s turning to a bunch of high school kids. But not just any kids. It is depending on NASA HUNCH high school classrooms, like the one science teachers Gene Gordon and Donna Himmelberg lead at Fairport High School in Fairport, New York.

HUNCH is designed to connect high school classrooms with NASA engineers. For the past two years, Gordon’s students have been studying ways to kill bacteria in zero gravity, and they think they’re close to a solution(解决方案). “We don’t give the students any breaks. They have to do it just like NASA engineers,” says Florence Gold, a project manager.

“There are no tests,” Gordon says. “There is no graded homework. There almost are no grades, other than ‘Are you working towards your goal?’ Basically, it’s ‘I’ve got to produce this product and then, at the end of the year, present it to NASA.’ Engineers come and really do an in-person review, and…it’s not a very nice thing at times. It’s a hard business review of your product.”

Gordon says the HUNCH program has an impact(影响)on college admissions and practical life skills. “These kids are so absorbed in their studies that I just sit back. I don’t teach.” And that annoying bacteria? Gordon says his students are emailing daily with NASA engineers about the problem, readying a workable solution to test in space.

(2019全国II卷 阅读D)

What is the best title for the text?

A. NASA: The Home of Astronauts

B. Space: The Final Homework Frontier

C. Nature: An Outdoor Classroom

D. HUNCH: A College Admission Reform

【分析】本文讲述了NASA的宇航员受到细菌问题的困扰,他们把该问题交给了NASA HUNCH的高中生们,其目的是将科技与学校教育结合起来。根据第一段的“How is NASA overcoming this very tiny big problem? It’s turning to a bunch of high school kids.”、第三段的“There is no graded homework…at the end of the year, present it to NASA.’”以及最后一段的“Gordon says his students…readying a workable solution to test in space.”可知,本题的最佳答案为B项。A项信息文章未提及;C、D两项均是文章中部分段落的主题,不能全面概括文章的主旨。

Good Morning Britain’s Susanna Reid is used to grilling guests on the sofa every morning, but she is cooking up a storm in her latest role — showing families how to prepare delicious and nutritious meals on a tight budget.

In Save Money: Good Food, she visits a different home each week and with the help of chef Matt Tebbutt offers top tips on how to reduce food waste, while preparing recipes for under £5 per family a day. And the Good Morning Britain presenter says she’s been able to put a lot of what she’s learnt into practice in her own home, preparing meals for sons, Sam, 14, Finn, 13, and Jack, 11.

“We love Mexican churros, so I buy them on my phone from my local Mexican takeaway restaurant,” she explains. “I pay £5 for a portion(份), but Matt makes them for 26p a portion, because they are flour, water, sugar and oil. Everybody can buy takeaway food, but sometimes we’re not aware how cheaply we can make this food ourselves.”

The eight-part series(系列节目), Save Money: Good Food, follows in the footsteps of ITV’s Save Money: Good Health, which gave viewers advice on how to get value from the vast range of health products on the market.

With food our biggest weekly household expense, Susanna and Matt spend time with a different family each week. In tonight’s Easter special they come to the aid of a family in need of some delicious inspiration on a budget. The team transforms the family’s long weekend of celebration with less expensive but still tasty recipes.

(2018全国I卷 阅读B)

What can be a suitable title for the text?

A. Keeping Fit by Eating Smart

B. Balancing Our Daily Diet

C. Making Yourself a Perfect Chef

D. Cooking Well for Less

【分析】根据文章第一段中的“prepare delicious and nutritious meals on a tight budget”,第二段中的“how to reduce food waste, while preparing recipes for under £5 per family a day”,第三段中的“how cheaply we can make this food ourselves”以及最后一段中的“less expensive but still tasty recipes”等信息可知,文章主要讲述如何用较少的钱做出好吃又营养的食物,所以“Cooking Well for Less”是最佳标题。故选D项。A项和C项只概括了文章中的部分细节,不全面。B项是针对文中“delicious and nutritious meals”的主观臆造。

2、文章大意类

(1)通读全文,抓住每段或每个层次的主要含义;

(2)将每段的主题和主旨句综合起来,归纳出文章的中心。

解答此类题目时,应特别注意把握文章的“三主”,即文章的主题思想、结构主线和关键句的主谓结构。此外,甄别选项时,注意排除两类干扰项:一是以细节代替主旨;二是以表面意思代替深层含义。

Marian Bechtel sits at West Palm Beach’s Bar Louie counter by herself, quietly reading her e-book as she waits for her salad. What is she reading? None of your business! Lunch is Bechtel’s “me” time. And like more Americans, she’s not alone.

A new report found 46 percent of meals are eaten alone in America. More than half (53 percent) have breakfast alone and nearly half (46 percent) have lunch by themselves. Only at dinnertime are we eating together anymore, 74 percent, according to statistics from the report.

“I prefer to go out and be out. Alone, but together, you know?” Bechtel said, looking up from her book. Bechtel, who works in downtown West Palm Beach, has lunch with co-workers sometimes, but like many of us, too often works through lunch at her desk. A lunchtime escape allows her to keep a boss from tapping her on the shoulder. She returns to work feeling energized. “Today, I just wanted some time to myself,” she said.

Just two seats over, Andrew Mazoleny, a local videographer, is finishing his lunch at the bar. He likes that he can sit and check his phone in peace or chat up the barkeeper with whom he’s on a first-name basis if he wants to have a little interaction(交流). “I reflect on how my day’s gone and think about the rest of the week,” he said. “It’s a chance for self-reflection. You return to work recharged and with a plan.”

That freedom to choose is one reason more people like to eat alone. There was a time when people may have felt awkward about asking for a table for one, but those days are over. Now, we have our smartphones to keep us company at the table. “It doesn’t feel as alone as it may have before all the advances in technology,” said Laurie Demeritt, whose company provided the statistics for the report.

(2019全国II卷 阅读C)

What is the text mainly about?

A. The trend of having meals alone.

B. The importance of self-reflection.

C. The stress from working overtime.

D. The advantage of wireless technology.

【分析】本文通过一份调查结果显示,越来越多的人选择独自用餐,原因很多,比如逃离工作环境,或者独自思考、享受独处时光。再结合文章最后一段前两句“That freedom to choose is…but those days are over.”可以看出,以前独自用餐感觉尴尬的时代已经结束了,也就是说独自用餐正慢慢成为一种趋势,故选A项。B、C、D三项为文章中的细节信息,不能概括文章的主旨。

Benjamin West, the father of American painting, showed his talent for art when he was only six years of age. But he did not know about brushes before a visitor told him he needed one. In those days, a brush was made from camel’s hair. There were no camels nearby. Benjamin decided that cat hair would work instead. He cut some fur from the family cat to make a brush.

The brush did not last long. Soon Benjamin needed more fur. Before long, the cat began to look ragged(蓬乱). His father said that the cat must be sick. Benjamin was forced to admit what he had been doing.

The cat’s lot was about to improve. That year, one of Benjamin’s cousins, Mr. Pennington, came to visit. He was impressed with Benjamin’s drawings. When he went home, he sent Benjamin a box of paint and some brushes. He also sent six engravings(版画)by an artist. These were the first pictures and first real paint and brushes Benjamin had ever seen.

In 1747, when Benjamin was nine years old, Mr. Pennington returned for another visit. He was amazed at what Benjamin had done with his gift. He asked Benjamin’s parents if he might take the boy back to Philadelphia for a visit.

In the city, Mr. Pennington gave Benjamin materials for creating oil paintings. The boy began a landscape(风景)painting. Williams, a well-known painter, came to see him work. Williams was impressed with Benjamin and gave him two classic books on painting to take home. The books were long and dull. Benjamin could read only a little, having been a poor student. But he later said, “Those two books were my companions by day, and under my pillow at night.” While it is likely that he understood very little of the books, they were his introduction to classical paintings. The nine-year-old boy decided then that he would be an artist.

(2017浙江卷 阅读A)

What is the text mainly about?

A. Benjamin’s visit to Philadelphia.

B. Williams’ influence on Benjamin.

C. The beginning of Benjamin’s life as an artist.

D. The friendship between Benjamin and Pennington.

【分析】本文讲述了美国画家Benjamin West小时候的画画经历及他是如何立志成为一名画家的,故选C项。A、B、D三项是主旨下的具体支撑信息,而非主旨。

3、段落大意类

(1)快速浏览设问所指段落,画出主题句,如果没有主题句,画出高频关键词;

(2)对比主题句或高频关键词,结合选项,找出能够概括段落大意的选项。

一般来说,主题句通常以三种形式出现:

①开门见山:提出主题——细节支撑——阐明主题;

②段末点睛:细节描述——归纳要点——概括主题;

③段中点旨:细节描述——归纳主题——进一步解释。

在阅读非故事性文章如科普说明文或议论文时,主题句尤其明显。但有些文章的主题句并不明显,而是隐含在段落之中,考生要注意辨别。

Popularity is a well-explored subject in social psychology. Mitch Prinstein, a professor of clinical psychology, sorts the popular into two categories: the likable and the status seekers. The likables’ plays-well-with-others qualities strengthen schoolyard friendships, jump-start interpersonal skills and, when tapped early, are employed ever after in life and work. Then there’s the kind of popularity that appears in adolescence: status born of power and even dishonorable behavior.

(2019全国I卷 阅读D)

What is the second paragraph mainly about?

A. The classification of the popular.

B. The characteristics of adolescents.

C. The importance of interpersonal skills.

D. The causes of dishonorable behavior.

【分析】根据第二段中的“Mitch Prinstein, a professor of clinical psychology, sorts the popular into two categories: the likable and the status seekers.”可知,临床心理学教授Mitch Prinstein将受欢迎的人分为两类:讨人喜欢的人和追求地位的人。此句是段落主题句,本段内容分别对“the likable”和“the status seekers”做了解释,所以本段主要介绍了受欢迎的人的两种分类,故选A项。B、C、D三项分别是针对原文中“adolescence”、“interpersonal skills”和“dishonorable behavior”这三个词臆造的选项,故排除。

Meanwhile, things that you might expect to discourage spending — “bad” tables, crowding, high prices — don’t necessarily. Diners at bad tables — next to the kitchen door, say — spent nearly as much as others but soon fled. It can be concluded that restaurant keepers need not “be overly concerned about ‘bad’ tables”, given that they’re profitable. As for crowds, a Hong Kong study found that they increased a restaurant’s reputation, suggesting great food at fair prices. And doubling a buffet’s price led customers to say that its pizza was 11 percent tastier.

(2018江苏卷 阅读B)

What does the last paragraph talk about?

A. Tips to attract more customers.

B. Problems restaurants are faced with.

C. Ways to improve restaurants’ reputation.

D. Common misunderstandings about restaurants.

【分析】分析该段可以看出第一句是段落主题句。第一句意为“你认为可能抑制消费的因素,如‘差’餐位、人群拥挤、价格高等不一定是对的”。下文举例证明作者的观点,所以本段主要讲人们对于饭店的几个误解。故选D项。

本文来源:《百朗英语阅读风暴新课标系列·阅读理解微技能深度训练》



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